What are the inequality rising factors in Bangladesh? What are the impacts of covid-19 on Bangladesh economy? How our social structures fluctuated by covid-19? Why people cannot be equivalent member of our society? What are the unemployed induced diseases in Bangladesh? How palma ratio measure disparity? Why real empowerment of marginal people is necessary for building up a Decent Society? Elucidation of all these questions are analyzed very significantly and understandable way by noted Economist Prof. Dr. Abul Barkat in his recently published book namely "Boro Prodaye Somaj-Orthoniti-Rastro: Vairuser Mohabiporjoye Thekey Shovon Bangladehser Sondhane (On the Larger Canvas of Society-Economy-State: In Search of a Transition from the Virus-Driven Great Disaster to a Decent Bangladesh).

Professor Abul Barkat in his book proposes general theory of decent society. It includes three foundational components. Social foundational component owns knowledge rich, free thinking and creativity promoting; solidarity rich; free from all forms of superstitions; rational humans. Economic foundational component includes people's ownership on natural resources; social ownership on production; filthy rich less. Political foundational component includes democracy, social justice, community administration and people's responsibility to protect motherland. The fundamental objectives of the theory of decent society are accelerating the process of human enlightenment; creativity promoting knowledge system; instilling high sense of solidarity; process of making human rationality up; making people free from all forms of inequality; free from rent-seeker; making a state for 100% peoples ownership and master less civic governance.

Theory of decent social system contains eleven principles to build decent Bangladesh from covid-19 impacts.1. We want development-welfare-progression, but the development would be nature-environment oriented; 2. We need economic growth. We don't need environmentally harmful, socially unjustified, human resources destructive growth; 3. Growth should be inequality reduced; 4. Growth must be employment-creation oriented; 5. Per capita income or growth domestic product is not development. It must be ensure healthy life of women-children-old-marginal-poor-deprived-isolated people; 6. We want to transform the power of youth to real resources; 7. We want positive social impact; 8. People's ownership on natural resources (land, water body, forest, space resources, coal, gas and mineral) on behalf of nature; 9. We want to uphold human security and equal opportunity for state-society-economy' development; 10. Promote inequality reduced home grown development philosophy; 11. We want to extract the taste global economic opportunities.

Generally we practices mainstream economics - classical stream, Marxian stream, neo-classical stream, institutional stream, Austrian stream, Keynesian stream, behaviouralist stream, neo-liberal stream. Apart from that president, prime minister and regional name basis economics are - Nixonomics, Carterronomics, Bushonomics, Clintonomics, Obamanomics, Trumponomics, Abenomics, Orbanomics, Erdogonomics and Brexitonomics. But covid-19 has been created Inequalitynomics, Alienationomics, Angrynomics, Deceptionomics, Frustrationomics, Fatenomics, Fatalistonomics, Ravagenomics, Hatenomics, Hypocrisonomics, Arroganceonomics, Secretonomics, Lienomics, Insecuritynomics, Violenconomics, Mentaldepressionomics, Taxslaveronomics, pauperisationomics, Beggaronomics, Badonomics, Weaponomics, GAFAnomics(Google, Amazon, Faceboo, Apple), Onlinomics, Nuclearbomonomics, Animalkillingonomics, Naturesidonomics, Biodiversitysidonomics and Sociosidonomics.

Abul Barkat highlights the extreme and hardcore poverty, its structure and dimensions in his book. He refers - income poverty, food poverty, jobless poverty, housing poverty, education poverty, health poverty, child poverty, poverty of older people, poverty of women, poverty of landless people, poverty of immobilize people and exterminate people; poverty of slum people, ecological poverty, insecurity induced poverty of mass people, poverty of haor, baor and marginal people. Professor Barkat methodically estimates the poverty structure in Bangladesh. The people who earn less than 67 taka per day or consume less than 2122 kilo calorie per day - can be poor. During the period of 1985-86, the poverty rate was 55.7%, in 2004 it was 40.4%, and then the rate was 31.5% in 2010. 22% people live under the poverty line during 2015-16. Writer through - real income, land ownership, ownership of black money and population dynamics, estimates that out of 16 cores people, 10 cores 55 lacs people are poor. He in his 'rich-poor class pyramid' identifies - 44 lacs rich, 75 lacs higher middle class, 1 core 56 lacs center middle class, 5 cores 1 lac middle class, 2 cores 71 lacs low middle class, 13 cores 13 lacs extreme poor and 6 cores 55 lacs hardcore poor people in Bangladesh. Researcher Barkat calculates palma ratio to measure disparity in Bangladesh where he mentions palma ratio near 3 is dangerous. In 2000, palma ratio was 2.97; in 2010, it was 2.50; in 2016, the ratio was 2.92. In 2020, due to covid-19 the ratio has become 7.53.

People cannot be an equivalent member of society due to lack of three resources, 1. Material resources: income, nutrient food, proper education, health care, rights in khas land, forest, water bodies and employment; 2. Spiritual resources: thoughts on life, model of ideal person, mutual respect, aspiration, completeness of life; 3. Emotional resources: love, belief, justice, inclusion. International Labor Organization (ILO) explains globally 50% people lose their jobs. Due to covid-19, globally possible impacts is 8.8 trillion $ or 77, 11, 33,600 crore taka or 9.7% of global GDP. In Bangladesh, before lockdown the total household income of middle class was 58.07% but after lockdown 47.79%; household income of rich was 38.09% but after lockdown 46.09%; before lockdown the household income of super-duper rich was 27.82% but it is 38.80%. Due to covid-19 impacts, out of 6 crore 82 lacs 8 thousands people, 3 crore 59 lacs 73 thousands 271 people lose their jobs in Bangladesh. Consequently, wealth inequality, health inequality and education inequality rising. After lockdown the Poor has become 40%(absolute poor-25% and hardcore poor 15%); Middle class has become 50 %(higher middle class-13%, middle-middle class 14% and lower middle class-23%) and Rich has become 10%(rich-5% and super rich-5%). Apart from that, informal sectors has become fall in risk- hawker economy, vendor economy, tokai economy, tea-stall economy, hotel-restaurant economy, driver economy, china town economy, Bongobazar economy, super-market economy, Sim economy and bag economy etc.

Abul Barkat explains recovery model from covid-19 to decent Bangladesh. To indulgence covid-19 pandemic 6 diseases can be treated. 1. Class structure depression induced diseases; 2. Food shortage induced diseases; 3. Scaling up inequality induced diseases; 4. Mental depression, fear, dishearten induced diseases; 5. Violence induced diseases; and 6. Unemployment induced diseases. There are 3 methods (L-system, U-system and V-system) to recover from covid-19 to decent Bangladesh. L-system: It means no treatment. When this system prevails in a society, death is the ultimate fact. Then collective impacts of 6 diseases would be rise. U-system: It implies mid-level treatment. In this treatment, the social health will access the opportunities- employment opportunities, social safety net program, legal support, food supply, budget for sanitation, and education for all program. V-system: it means better treatment. It is also called victory system. This system is free from all forms of diseases. It needs collective actions to renovate social health. But the primary necessary precondition to facilitate these L-U-V system, there are 3 factors working here, 1. Expert doctor for public health, in economy it is called labor force; 2. Medicine, machine, bed, hospital, health concerns, in economy it is called capital; and 3. Financial support (credit line or loan). To conclude, combination of deflationary and inflationary cycle can be a sustainable strategy for good economy.

Shishir Reza is an Environmental Analyst and Associate Member, Bangladesh Economic Association.

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